A Special ADROTH Project Feature

Now the general is the bulwark of the State; if the bulwark is complete at all points; the State will be strong; if the bulwark is defective, the State will be weak.

- Sun Tzu (The Art of War)


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Site origin
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PMA alternatives
Points of view

The vast majority of generals and admirals in the Armed Forces of the Philippines come from the Philippine Military Academy. There are, however, a handful of generals that come from alternative sources.

These alternative sources of commission, as well as the icons used to represent them in the various lists, are discussed here.

Source of commision
Direct commission
School logo when applicable
These are officers that obtained their commissions via a major service Officer Candidate School. As per GHQ AFP Circular Nr 14, dated Nov 10, 1994, OCS applicants were drawn, in priority, from the following: Reserve Officers (Active), graduates of the AFP Advanced ROTC scholarship programs, outstanding graduates of Military Science (MS) 43 program, enlisted men, others.
Philippine Air Force programs

Historically, the Philippine Air Force obtained its non-PMA officers from the following sources:

PAF Flying School (PAFFS)

This is the principal source of pilots for the PAF. The school's corps of cadets include commissioned officers of the AFP (e.g., from the PMA and PAFROPP), as well as graduates of civilian colleges and universities.

The latter obtain their commissions upon graduation from PAFFS.

PAF Regular Officer Procurement Program (PAFROPP)

The PAFROPP was a three-year officer training program (not to be confused with Officer Candidate School) initiated by the PAF in 1971. History of the program is available here. This program has reportedly been discontinued.

PAFROPP graduates have the option to proceed to the PAF Flying School to become pilots, or remain as non-pilot commissioned officers.

Foreign military academies and officer candidate programs
US Military Academy (West Point)
The US Military Academy admits Filipinos, through competitive examination, to its Corps of Cadets.
US Naval Academy (Annapolis)
US Air Force Academy
US Coast Guard Academy
US Merchant Marine Academy    
OCS - Portsea (Australia)
Officers in this block come from the Australian Officer Candidate School in Portsea, Victoria. Additional information available here.
National Defense Academy (Japan)